Introduction to Turkish Language

Introduction to Turkish Language

Turkish language belongs to the Turkic group of languages alongside with Estonian, Hungarian and Finish. Turkish is a member of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family. It is closely related to Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, and Balkan Gagauz Turkish, and there is considerable mutual intelligibility between these languages

It is one of the hardest languages in the world due to its grammar rules and construction of the sentences. Between Roman and Germanic and Slavic group of languages there is a lot of similarities, maybe not in the words, but certainly in the construction and making of the sentence. The rules are quite simple, there are genders and the order of the verb, object, subject is the same.

In order to promote this language, that is indeed beautiful, we created an Instagram page basic Turkish, it is an easy and fun way to learn at least somethings of Turkish language. So follow us on this link.

Now we will introduce you with some common rules and grammar basics:

When it comes to Turkish Language, there are some basic rules that You should know and follow:

-There are no genders such as female, male and neutral, it is just one unique gender

-The order of the sentence is Subject-Object-Verb (verb is always at the last place)

-they use vocal harmony, which means words are changing and adopting according to the last vowel

– is an agglutinative language, which means they add affixes(added/imputed words or letters), especially suffixes (addition at the end of the word)

Personal pronouns are expressed in a way that in the word that belongs to you, you add a suffix (ending at the word) that represent your possession of the item

English: I have a cat, Turkish: kedim var; the suffix (i)m at the end of the word kedi(cat) marks that object refers to you as a first person singular.

And each person you, Him, we, You, They, have a specific ending that you add to the word. So you never say I (Ben) in Turkish, you just add appropriate suffix

Turkish alphabet consists of 29 letters — 8 vowels and 21 consonants. It’s an adapted version of the Latin alphabet that includes six additional letters — ç, ğ, ş, ı, ö, ü.

  • c is pronounced like j in juice, jam, jacket
  • ç is pronounced like an English ch in chocolate, charity, charm
  • ğ, also known as “yumuşak ge” or “soft g”, always follows a vowel. Generally, it has no sound of its own. If “soft g” follows an a, ı, o, or u, it prolongs the sound of the vowel (e.g., ağaç /ɑ.ɑtʃ/, yağmur /jaɰmuɾ/). If ğ comes after e, i, ö, or ü, it sounds like the “y” in the world yellow (e.g., iğne /iʝne/).
  • ş or şe sounds like sh in sharp, shallow, shadow, shame
  • ı is another special letter, It looks like the English letter i without the dot, but its capitalized version looks the same as the English one. It’s pronounced like a schwa /ə/ (e.g., ılık /ɯˈɫɯk/, ısı /ɯˈsɯ/).
  • The opposite of an I is a dotted version İ or i. It sounds like the double e in see, but a bit shorter: iğne /iːˈnɛ/. 
  • ö and ü work the same as the umlauted vowels in German

Basic Expressions

When coming to Turkey, it is good to know some basic expressions, some people speak English, especially in Touristic area, but in general it is not so common to know English:

  • Merhaba! – “Hello!”
  • Selam! – “Hi!”
  • Nasılsın? – “How are you?” [Informal]
  • İyiyim, teşekkür ederim, ya siz? – “I’m fine, thank you. And you?” [Formal]
  • İyiyim, teşekkür ederim, ya sen? – “I’m fine, thank you. And you?” [Informal]
  • Sizin adınız nedir? (“What is your name?” ) [Formal]
  • Senin adın ne? (“What is your name?” ) [Informal]
  • (Benim) adım (your name) (“My name .. )
  • (Benim) ismim -as we mention before, there is no need to ad benim, because suffix added in ismim already mean that you are referring to you
  • Memnun oldum. (“I’m glad to meet you.” )

For more expression like this, don’t forget to follow us on Instagram.

Although there are a lot of grammar rules, far beyond what we had wrote here, the best way to learn a language is naturally involve, engage and surround yourself with it. Like when we were children, we did not learn grammar rules to learn how to speak our mother language, it came naturally. So listen the songs, watch tv series, read on that language, travel, speak with locals, use google translate at the spot. The more you are surrounded with something, the easier it will be for you to learn it. Also the more you listen to it, you will make sentences easier, especially because of vocal harmony, something will start to make more sense to you and sound better when spoken.